Diseases & Deformities

Achilles Tendinitis

The Achilles tendon is one of the longer tendons in your body which stretches from the heel bone to your calf muscles. It appears as a band of tissue at the back of your ankle and above your heel. The Achilles tendon attaches to the heel bone over a broad area. The exertion of force or repeated stress on the tendon, where it attaches (inserts) to the heel bone can cause tearing, swelling and pain. This eventually leads to wearing and tearing of the tendon.

Achilles Tendinitis

Adult (Acquired) Flatfoot

Flatfoot, also known as “fallen arches” or Pes planus, is a deformity in children’s feet in which the arch that runs lengthwise along the sole of the foot has collapsed to the ground or not formed at all. Flatfoot is normal in the first few years of life as the arch of the foot usually develops between the age of 3 and 5 years. Flatfoot can be rigid or flexible. Flexible flatfoot usually resolves without any treatment needed unless pain is involved.

Adult (Acquired) Flatfoot

Arthritis of the Foot and Ankle

Ankle arthritis is a degenerative condition which is usually a result of previous trauma to the ankle joint. It can also be the result of auto-immune or inflammatory conditions. It results in pain, swelling and restriction in range of motion and often a deformity.

Arthritis of the Foot and Ankle

Bunions

Bunion is latin for turnip. It is also the bump at the base of your big toe. The medical name for this condition is Hallux Valgus. It only requires treatment if it is painful or interfering with shoes, and the first line treatment is conservative, with wide, deep toe-box footwear, silicone pads, sleeves or insoles. Surgery is required only if pain and/or difficulty wearing shoes persists despite conservative measures.

Bunions

Claw Toe

Claw toe is a deformity, where a toe bends and appears like a bird’s claw. The affected toe is bent upward from the joint at the ball of foot, and downward at the joints in the middle and tip of the toe to curl under the foot. Hard thick skin called corns may develop under the ball of the foot or on the top of the affected toe, causing pain while walking.

Claw Toe

Corns

A corn is a circular area of thickened skin developed because of continuous friction or pressure. They usually develop on the soles of feet, or on the top or sides of toes, and appear as yellowish dead tissue surrounding an area of tenderness. Pain and discomfort may be present with walking, which can get more painful without treatment.

Corns

Diabetic (Charcot) Foot

A corn is a circular area of thickened skin developed because of continuous friction or pressure. They usually develop on the soles of feet, or on the top or sides of toes, and appear as yellowish dead tissue surrounding an area of tenderness. Pain and discomfort may be present with walking, which can get more painful without treatment.

Diabetic (Charcot) Foot

Hammer Toe

This is a deformity of the lesser toes (2nd, 3rd or 4th) of the foot. The toe is bent at the middle joint. It can result in pain on top of the toe knuckle (proximal interphalangeal joint) and also the tip of the toe. It can be the cause of corns.

Hammer Toe

Heel Pain

The heel is made up of the calcaneus bone and supported by a network of muscles, tendons, ligaments and soft tissues, which together support the weight of the body and stress during movement. Heel pain is a common symptom of excessive strain placed on these structures.

Heel Pain

Metatarsalgia

Coming soon

Metatarsalgia

Ingrown Toenail

An ingrown toenail is a common and painful condition of the toe. It occurs when the sides or corner of the nail grow inwards and penetrates the skin of the toe. Pain is often accompanied by swelling and redness. The big toe is affected most often.

Ingrown Toenail

Toe Deformities

Anatomically the foot is divided into the forefoot, mid foot and hind foot. The Forefoot has 4 small toes called phalanges and 1 large toe called the hallux or big toe. Phalanges have 3 bones and 3 joints, while the big toe has 2 bones and 2 joints. The mid foot and hind foot have different structures, which are responsible for bearing body weight and performing activities such as walking and running.

Toe Deformities

Morton's Neuroma

A common cause of forefoot pain is a thickened, irritated nerve called a Morton's neuroma. It is characteristically associated with pain in the ball of the foot and shooting pains into the toes and often burning or tingling in the affected toes.

Morton's Neuroma

Plantar Fasciitis

One of the most common causes of heel pain is a problem called "plantar fasciitis". Plantar fasciitis is the term doctors use when a part of the foot called the plantar fascia gets irritated or inflamed. The plantar fascia is a tough band of tissue that connects the heel bone to the toes.

Plantar Fasciitis

Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction

The posterior tibial tendon passes through the ankle to attach the calf muscle with the bones of the mid foot. It provides stability to the arch and supports the foot while walking. Inflammation or a tear of this tendon as a result of injury may cause dysfunction, leading to pain and the development of flatfoot.

Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction

Rheumatoid Arthritis of the Foot & Ankle

Ankle arthritis is a degenerative condition which is usually a result of previous trauma to the ankle joint. It can also be the result of auto-immune or inflammatory conditions. It results in pain, swelling and restriction in range of motion and often a deformity.

Rheumatoid Arthritis of the Foot & Ankle

Sesamoiditis

Sesamoiditis is an inflammation of the sesamoid bone and the associated tendons. It is commonly seen in ballet dancers, sprinters and basketball players. It is an overuse injury caused by an increased pressure over the sesamoid bones resulting in a chronic inflammation.

Sesamoiditis

Stiff Big Toe (Hallux Rigidus)

This is a degenerative condition affecting the big toe (hallux) metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint at the base of the toe. It results in pain and restriction of movement (rigidus). The changes in the joint are essentially those of osteoarthritis, with loss of cartilage, formation of osteophytes at the joint margin (spurs) and changes in the bone (hardening or sclerosis).

Stiff Big Toe (Hallux Rigidus)

Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome

Tarsal tunnel is the gap that is formed between the underlying bones of the foot and the overlying tough fibrous tissue. Tarsal tunnel syndrome refers to a condition where the posterior tibial nerve that lies within the tarsal tunnel is compressed. The condition occurs when the tibial nerve is pinched.

Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome

Heel Spur

Coming soon

Heel Spur

Ankle Instability

Ankle instability is a chronic condition characterized by a recurrent slipping of the outer side of the ankle. It usually results from repeated ankle sprains. It is generally noticed during movement of the ankle joint but can also occur during standing as well.

Ankle Instability

Cavus Foot Deformity

A cavus foot or a high-arched foot refers to a condition that can vary from a slightly high arch to a severe deformity. Cavus foot can lead to symptoms such as pain and instability. The condition may be inherited or associated with neurological disorders or other conditions.

Cavus Foot Deformity

  • Fellow of the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons
  • Fellow of the Australian Orthopaedic Association
  • Australian Medical Association
  • Royal North Shore Hospital
  • British Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society
  • American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society
  • Australian Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society