Injuries and fractures
Achilles Tendon Rupture
The Achilles tendon has a tremendous healing capacity. The aim of treatment is to allow return to pre-injury level of function. This can be achieved with both operative/surgical repair and with non-operative treatment. The end result is often similar with both methods and this has been proven in several large research studies on the topic.
The ankle joint is composed of three bones: the tibia, fibula, and talus which are articulated together. The ends of the fibula and tibia (lower leg bones) form the inner and outer malleolus, which are the bony protrusions of the ankle joint that you can feel and see on either side of the ankle. The joint is protected by a fibrous membrane called a joint capsule, and filled with synovial fluid to enable smooth movement.
Lisfranc (Midfoot) Injury
The Lisfranc joint or tarsometatarsal joint refers to the region in the middle of the foot. It is a junction between the tarsal bones (seven bones in the foot arch) and metatarsal bones (five long bones in the foot). Lisfranc fracture scan occur due to a fall from a height or traumatic motor accidents.
An ankle sprain is commonly the result of an inversion injury which results in partial or complete tearing of the lateral ankle ligaments (outside of the ankle). Simple sprains involve the anterior talo-fibular ligament (ATFL) and calcaneofibular ligament (CFL). More severe sprains can result in injury to the syndesmotic ligaments, known as a "high-ankle sprain", or even ligaments on the inside of the ankle (medial or deltoid ligament sprain).
The calcaneus or heel bone is the largest bone in the ankle forming the heel and is situated at the lower back part of the foot. The calcaneus forms the subtalar joint with the talus, which helps in the inward and outward movement of the foot. Fracture of the calcaneus reduces or prevents movement of the subtalar joint.
Stress Fractures of the Foot and Ankle
A stress fracture is described as a small crack in the bone which occurs from an overuse injury of a bone. It commonly develops in the weight bearing bones of the lower leg and foot. When the muscles of the foot are overworked or stressed, they are unable to absorb the stress and when this happens the muscles transfer the stress to the bone which results in stress fracture.
The talus is a small bone at the ankle joint that connects the heel bone and the two bones of the lower leg, enabling the up and down movement of the foot. Fractures in the talus bone may occur due to a fall from great heights, motor vehicle accidents or twisting of the ankle. The symptoms include severe ankle pain, inability to walk, swelling and tenderness.
Toe and Forefoot Fractures
The forefoot is the front of the foot that includes the toes. Fractures occurring in this part of the foot are painful but very often not disabling. There are 2 types of fractures namely, traumatic fracture and stress fracture. Traumatic fractures occur when there is a direct impact of your foot on a hard surface. Stress fractures are tiny hair line cracks in the bone, most commonly caused due to repeated stress.
Turf toe is an injury to the ligament at the base of the big toe. It is a painful condition which usually results from jamming of the toe into the ground or excessive backward bending of the toe. As it is more common in athletes playing on artificial turf, especially those involved in field sports such as football, baseball and soccer, it is known as turf toe.