Arthritis is a general term covering numerous conditions where the joint surface or cartilage wears out. The joint surface is covered by a smooth articular surface that allows pain free movement in the joint. This surface can wear out for several reasons; often the definite cause is not known.
Meniscus tear is the commonest knee injury in athletes, especially those involved in contact sports. A suddenly bend or twist in your knee cause the meniscus to tear. This is a traumatic meniscus tear. Elderly people are more prone to degenerative meniscal tears as the cartilage wears out and weakens with age. The two wedge-shape cartilage pieces’ present between the thighbone and the shinbone are called meniscus. They stabilize the knee joint and act as “shock absorbers”.
The tibia or shin bone is a long bone in the lower leg. Flat surfaces called medial and lateral tibial plateaus at the upper end of the tibia articulate with the femur (thigh bone) to form the knee joint. This surface is softer than the region of the tibia below. A force that drives the end of the femur into the soft tibial plateau leads to a tibial plateau fracture and can affect stability, and lead to arthritis and loss of motion.
The knee cap or patella is the largest sesamoid bone in the body and one of the components of the knee joint, present at the front of the knee. The under surface of the kneecap and the lower end of the femur are coated with articular cartilage, which helps in smooth movement of the knee joint. The knee cap protects the knee and provides attachment to various muscle groups of the thigh and leg. Fracture of knee cap is rare and is more common in adult males.
The tibia or shin bone is a major bone of the leg which connects the knee to the ankle. A tibial fracture is a break in the continuity of the shin bone (tibia).